Merchants in antiquity[ edit ] Phoenician trade route map Merchants have existed as long as business, trade and commerce have been conducted. Open air, public markets, where merchants and traders congregated, were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, Phoenicia and Rome. These markets typically occupied a place in the town’s centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days. Rome had two forums; the Forum Romanum and Trajan’s Forum. The latter was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with shops on four levels. The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front.
Logs, Agreements And Crew Lists Of British Registered Ships
A Abbreviations This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations , which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted.
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England Pre [ edit ] English Red Ensign as it appeared in the 17th century. In , a Royal Proclamation of King Charles II , reigned , confirmed that the Red Ensign was the appropriate flag to be worn by English merchant ships. The wording of the proclamation indicates that the flag was customarily being used by English merchantmen before that date. At this time, the ensign displayed the English Cross of St George in the canton.
It is probable that the cross-saltire was adopted by the Scots as a national ensign at a very early period, but there seems no direct evidence of this before the fourteenth century. The earliest Scottish records were lost at sea in the ship that was sent to return them to that country, whence they had been carried off, with the ” Stone of Destiny “, by King Edward I , reigned The Scottish Ensign has been flown unofficially by many Scottish vessels for a number of years.
Supporters cited the example of The States of Jersey , who in were permitted to use a “voluntary of informal” red ensign, adorned with a Plantagenet crown. An Order in Council of 21 July , established as naval flags of the royal standard, the Union flag and “the ensign directed by her Majesty since the said Union of the two Kingdoms”, which from the coloured drafts attached to the order is seen to be the red ensign. The white and blue ensigns are not mentioned in this Order; evidently the red ensign was alone regarded as the legal ensign of Great Britain and the others as merely variations of it for tactical purposes.
This resulted in a new red ensign which placed the first Union Flag in the first quarter. The new design of the Red Ensign was proclaimed by Queen Anne , reigned , who indicated that it was to be used by both the navy and ships owned by “our loving subjects. In , the Merchant Shipping Act included a specific provision that the Red Ensign was the appropriate flag for a British merchantman. This provision was repeated in successive British shipping legislation i.
History[ edit ] Between and , diverse federal legislation supported maritime training through school ships, internships at sea, and other methods. A disastrous fire in aboard the passenger ship SS Morro Castle , in which lives were lost, convinced the U. Congress that direct federal involvement in efficient and standardized training was needed. Originally—and in cooperation with the State of New York which donated the land —the U.
Featured Merchant Navy School – STC South Shields Marine School South Tyneside College (STC) is a large further education college in South Tyneside in North East England, with its main sites in the towns of South Shields and Hebburn.
The customs and practices referred to were the naval equivalent of the unwritten common law of Great Britain; and your persona is legally bound to conform to the law of the land, of which a large part is not recorded in statute form. The study of naval customs and traditions of to , like the study of the larger body of history itself, is not an exact science, and the material stated herein is the product of much research, substantiated by at least some evidence, and the assistance of the noted authority on the subject, LTCMD A.
Refer to the graphical course “Orientation to Frigate Design” for general shipboard terms, such as the term “Orlop” deck. From the Norse came the use of a single steering oar or sweep on the right or steer board side of their vessels. Everyone followed this design. It was found awkward to put a vessel alongside a dock on the side this oar was shipped. Thus ships were put alongside starboard side outboard. A plank was put across from the dock to ship. This plank or board was called the ladeboard or loadboard, later larboard.
There was doubtless much confusion over the use of the terms larboard and starboard, but after our period there came relief. The French with their high ships’ sides devised a shortcut to handling cargo: To mariners this became the portside. From early times, to avoid collisions, ships underway or at anchor by night carried at least a single lantern showing a white light.
Logs, Agreements And Crew Lists Of British Registered Ships
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England pre [ edit ] English Red Ensign as it appeared in the 17th century. In , a Royal Proclamation of King Charles II — , reigned — confirmed that the Red Ensign was the appropriate flag to be worn by English merchant ships. The wording of the proclamation indicates that the flag was customarily being used by English merchantmen before that date. At this time, the ensign displayed the English Cross of St George in the canton. It is probable that the cross-saltire was adopted by the Scots as a national ensign at a very early period, but there seems no direct evidence of this before the fourteenth century.
The earliest Scottish records were lost at sea in the ship that was sent to return them to that country, whence they had been carried off, with the ” Stone of Destiny “, by King Edward I — , reigned —
Military to Mariners — Veteran’s Information Page. The Maritime Administration is the agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation with responsibility for waterborne transportation.. Military to Mariner – Your life afloat Military to Mariner connects Veterans to careers afloat in the U.S. Merchant Marine. A brief overview of the industry. It’s important to understand that the.
As with in land sites, spatial planning is needed for coastal and sea sites too, in order to design current and future activities. The specific goal of this directive is to establish a framework for maritime spatial planning MSP aiming to foster coordinated and coherent decision-making, to maximize the sustainable development, economic growth and social cohesion. For these tasks, MSP should take into consideration the protection of cultural heritage both underwater and coastal as well to intensify integrated planning for coastal areas.
In addition, the European marine region of Mediterranean Sea adheres the Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean adopted in , with Cyprus being one of the 22 Contracting Parties. MSP can be extremely complicated since a variety of activities need to be planned keeping at the same time a balance from one hand between the ecosystem, cultural and natural Heritage and on the other economic growth.
Within this framework, the present paper discusses the assessment and evaluation of Marine Spatial Planning MSP related to the pressures to historical and archaeological coastal sites in Cyprus, using Geographical Information Systems GIS.
Abbreviations , which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.
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Volume 40, Issues 1—2 , April , Pages The phosphorus cycle, phosphogenesis and marine phosphate-rich deposits Author links open overlay panel K. One of the most important aspects of the phosphorus cycle is its vital role in governing productivity, thereby interacting with the exogenic part of the carbon cycle, which, in turn, is important in regulating Earth’s climate. Phosphorus is a prime element to be traced in Earth’s history, because it allows for the reconstruction of long-term feedback mechanisms between climate, environment and ecology, and of global change as such.
Marine sedimentary phosphate deposits are particularly suited to study aspects of the phosphorus cycle, because, in the case of ubiquity, their origin may result from a general acceleration of the global phosphorus cycle. Sources of sedimentary phosphate are microbial breakdown of buried organic matter and redox-driven phosphate desorption from iron and manganese oxyhydroxides. Dissolved sea-water phosphate represents an additional source which may become important in the formation of phosphatic hardgrounds.
The main locus of phosphogenesis is near the sediment-water interface, but phosphogenesis also occurs at greater sediment depths. Current-induced winnowing and transport processes along the sea floor concentrate phosphate precipitates into deposits, which exhibit internal stratification patterns typical for the prevailing hydraulic energy regime. In a sequence-stratigraphic context, phosphate deposits preferentially occur along marine or maximum flooding surfaces.
Consequent sedimentary reworking may result in the transfer of phosphates to highstand or lowstand deposits. Bio- chemical weathering on continents represents the most significant source of bioavailable phosphorus. This implies that long-term changes in marine phosphorus levels — and with these changes in marine ecology, productivity rates and ratios of exported carbonate carbon and organic carbon — are a response to changes in continental weathering rates.
A compilation of marine sedimentary phosphorus burial rates for the last Myr suggests that natural variations have occurred that span one order of magnitude.
Mallows Bay: The ‘ghost fleet’ graveyard where nature has risen from the dead
There are more than 40, commercial vessels currently flying the American flag. Each year, the U. Beyond the important contributions to our economy, a healthy merchant marine is vital to our national security. Throughout our history, our nation has relied on U. Unfortunately, over the last 35 years, the number of U.
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EXPERIENCE AND COMPETENCE
His father, William Lawrence Ryan, was a steamship company executive. As a child, Lord developed his equestrian skills on his mother’s fruit farm  in the Hudson River Valley. He started spending summers at sea, and from the decks of cargo ships  painted and sketched the landscapes he encountered— Africa , the Mediterranean and China.
He was educated at St. While making maritime training films, he took to the idea of acting. Career[ edit ] Lord received theatrical training from Sanford Meisner  at the Neighborhood Playhouse.
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With the victory, Springfield pushed its record to , in conference play. It marks just the seventh time in program history that the Pride has rattled off six-consecutive wins to open the season, and the fourth since Heading into this week, Springfield was one of only 33 Division III football teams to have not suffered a loss, and for the fifth-straight week, was receiving votes in the D3football. New Conference, Same Mission The newly formed football league consists of eight elite institutions that come from six different states and have combined for 17 NCAA championship appearances.
Coast Guard Academy, U. Springfield is looking to start the year with seven wins for the first time since , when the Pride started off the year For a program that dates back to , Springfield’s impressive season continues, as it has now started the season for just the seventh time in program history, including the fourth since Springfield’s start makes them one of just four teams in Division III to win their first five games of the season, and one of 22 who have yet to suffer a loss this year in all of college football.
Springfield has won 11 of the 15 meetings with Merchant Marine dating back to Merchant Marine was victorious in , , and in the last two seasons, which broke Sprinfield’s 10 meeting win-streak.